Archaeozoological examination of the 10th century graves from the microregion opposite of the Maros mouth


Vörös István

MŐT Kiadványok 4.(2015) 465–486.

DOI 10.55722/Arpad.Kiad.2015.4_11


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In the radius of around 20 km in the vicinity Szeged, in the region of the right bank Tisza, animal remains came to light at 15 sites, from 61 graves of 7 cemeteries and 8 burial places and from 2 pits situated between graves. Remains of 7 species could be identified: horse (Equus caballus L. 1758), sheep (Ovis aries L. 1758), cattle (Bos taurus L. 1758), domestic goose (Anser domesticus 1758), domestic hen (Gallus domesticus L. 1758), hare (Lepus europaeus Pall. 1778) and pig (Sus domesticus Erxl. 1777). The most frequently found remains belong to horses (33 partly skinned horse, 1 food offering and 1 attribute) and to sheep (27 food offerings, 4 attribute). They are followed by cattle (3 food offerings, 1 attribute), goose (4 food offerings), hen (2 food offerings, 1 animal sacrifice), hare (2 food offerings, 1 attribute) and pig (foodoffering). 75% of sacrifi ces of animal origin, food offerings and attributes were found in male burials (Table1). Osteological and topographical description of animal remains from the burial place of Szeged-Öthalom, Sandpit No. V. is published in the Appendix. In the 12 examined cemeteries and burial places, remains of horses were found in 34 graves: in 33 graves (26 male, 6 female and one burial of unknown gender) there were partly buried horses (Table 2), in one grave there was a food offering and in another one an upper cheek-tooth of a horse. Among the horses with identifi able gender, studs were absolutely dominating (23 individuals), mares were found only in 2 cases (single individuals), the gender of 8 individuals is unknown (Table 3). Among the 23 partly buried horses, in 12 cases no skin came to light and in 11 cases skin was buried (in 5 cases in it was folded, interwound and in the confi ne of 2 graves it was stretched). In the 26 male burials there were 21 studs and onemare, with 11 skinless and 9 horse skinned burials (4 folded, 3 interwound, but not stuffed, one stretched and one stretched in the confi ne of the grave-pit). Gender of 4 horse individuals is unknown. In 6 female graves there were 2 studs and a mare, one burial was without skin and 2 burials with skin (one folded and one stretched in the confi ne of the grave-pit). The gender of 3 horse individuals is unknown. On the basis of their head shape, body stature and withers height, Hungarian horses from the Conquest Period can be separated into two groups, types. The socalled boreal — pony horses — type includes 2 mares and 7 studs; 5 individuals belong to the small, 3 individuals to the medium small and one individual to the medium large body size. Mediterranean — similar and improved by Arabic horses — type includes 6 studs, 3 individuals belong to medium small, one individual